Monday, May 25, 2020

Cohort Follow Up Studies Cardiovascular Disease ( Cvd )

Cohort Follow-up Studies: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Demetrius Beauford Strayer University Professor Davis HAS 535 Managerial Epidemiology August 15, 2014 Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the disease that influences the veins which incorporate veins, corridors and vessels and the heart, overall this framework is known as the cardiovascular system. This disease is confounded for the coronary illness and comprises of plentiful issues joined with a natural methodology known as atherosclerosis; when substances develop in the dividers of the conduits. Under the cardiovascular disease flag, there are coronary diseases which influence the corridors, hear musicality issues, known as arrhythmias lastly the cogenital heart defects. The World Health Organization group cardiovascular disease into inherent coronary illness, cerebrovascular disease, coronary infection, rheumatic coronary illness, peripheral arterial disease and the profound vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Cardiovascular ailment (CVD) has long been viewed as an issue which essentially influences men in our general public; attention of the event of heart assaults in females, for instance, has been to a great extent a reconsideration. In the recent years, in any case, it has ended up progressively evident that this is not an issue constrained to guys, yet that it happens with extraordinary recurrence in ladies. We now realize that CVD is the reason for death more than any condition in ladies beyond 50Show MoreRelatedCohort Follow-u`Studies: Cardiovascular Disease1291 Words   |  5 PagesCohort Follow-up Studies – Cardiovascular Disease: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death and mortality across the globe, especially because of its increase in low and middle income countries. The disease is commonly referred to as heart disease since it’s a group of diseases that involve the heart, blood vessels or both. Generally, the disease involves abnormal functioning of the heart of blood vessels, which increases the risk of heart failure, heart attack, cardiac rhythm issuesRead MoreNutrition Case Study1159 Words   |  5 PagesParenteral administration of the Mg supplement is contraindicated in patients with heart block or myocardial damage (66). Role in cardiovascular disease Mg is associated with a number of conditions and chronic diseases. It can prevent inflammatory and oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular reactivity, increased vascular tone, hypertension, CVD, stroke, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity (63) (Figure 2). Thus the consumption of magnesium-rich foods isRead MoreEssay On Persian Registry Of Cardiovascular Disease1211 Words   |  5 Pagescalled â€Å"Persian Registry of Cardiovascular Disease (PROVE)† in order to be used for future research and also as a tool to develop national guidelines for diagnostic, treatment and prevention patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this paper, the design and methodology of the PROVE pilot study, started in Isfahan in 2015, will be discussed. . Methods Through establishing PROVE, patient’s data were collected from hospitals and outpatient clinics and followed up for a maximum of three yearsRead MoreMaternal Obesity Induce Offspring with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease1700 Words   |  7 PagesMaternal obesity induce offspring with risk of cardiovascular disease Introduction: The rate of obesity for the human population has shown to be increased expeditiously in the past decades. It has continuously raised health concerns among the world, and is likely to remain in times to come. This phenomenon is primarily due to the lifestyle changes resulting in high-energy intake coupling with decreased physical activity (Cameron et al. 2003). Obesity is identified by the high adipose tissue,Read MoreCorrelation Between Peanut Butter And Nut Consumption With Cvd1655 Words   |  7 Pagesand nut consumption with CVD, including CHD and stroke among women with type 2 diabetes. Another objective they had was to examine whether nuts positively influence the risk of CVD through markers of inflammation or modulation of plasma lipids. The population was composed of 6,309 women with diabetes who were followed up until the year 2002. Methods This was a cohort study, in which the participants were followed from 1980 to 2002, or 54,656 person years of follow-up. Person years is a measurementRead MoreArak, Isfahan Healthal Population-Based Study763 Words   |  4 PagesThe ICS is a longitudinal population-based study, with 6504 adults subjects aged ≠¥35 years at the baseline examination, enrolled in 2001 using multistage random cluster sampling [18]. The subjects living in three Iranian central areas (Arak, Isfahan, and Najafabad), enrolled in the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), were recruited for ICS [14, 19]. The IHHP design was previously reported [20]. Isfahan is a city with a population of 1986542, the second most populous metropolitan area in Iran afterRead MoreCardiovascular Disease Essay1716 Words   |  7 Pagespopulation adopting unhealthy lifestyles that lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD).1, 2 Stroke and coronary heart disease are the two leading health conditions and leading cause of death in es tablished countries. However, these two types of cardiovascular disease have identifiable risk factors that can be modified to reduce the risk of developing CVD.3 Additionally, due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity, primary prevention for CVD is catching the attention of many healthcare professionalsRead MoreNon Invasive Sub Clinical Cardiovascular Disease ( Cvd ) Assessment Tools3878 Words   |  16 PagesTitle: Association of â€Å"non-invasive sub-clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessment tools† with sleep duration and sleep quality. A systematic review 1. INTRODUCTION Sleep is essential to life, and it is estimated that humans spend one third of their lifetime sleeping 1. An estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders, yet only 20% report it to their physicians. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has serious biological consequences 2. A growingRead MoreCase Study1121 Words   |  5 PagesA detailed description of the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort can be found elsewhere (14,15). Briefly, this database comprises 812,073 Swedish men and women with blood samples sent for laboratory evaluation to the Central Automation Laboratory (CALAB) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the period 1985 to 1996 (16-18). Individuals recruited were primarily from the greater Stockholm area and, were either healthy and having laboratory testing as part of a general health check orRead More Physical Activity and Body Weight vs Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease2463 Words   |  10 PagesCardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common and well known afflictions in modern society. It kills and hospitalizes many people every year. CVD is actually a rather broad category of affliction. It encompasses any disease or condition that affects the heart. These conditions have effects that range from mild to surgical repair and even to death in extreme cases. The causes of CVD are fairly well known. It is directly linked to both physical activity (and the obesity

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) versus Serial Analysis of...

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) versus Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) INTRODUCTION Expressed sequence tag or also known as EST are 200 to 800 unedited nucleotide bases in length, and randomly selected single pass sequence reads which are derived from the cDNA libraries while serial analysis of gene expression or SAGE have more shorter sequence tags with only 10 to 20 base pairs. But even it is short it still have enough information to uniquely identify a transcript, especially if it is obtained from a unique position in each of the transcripts. Serial analysis of gene expression is a method or technique designed to gain a direct and quantitative measure of overall gene expression pattern. It is basically a sequence based†¦show more content†¦ETS also can determine definitively the number of copies of each transcript per cell and highlight any differential gene expression. EST includes an inefficient sequencing step, in which one sequencing process yields only one cDNA sequence. Although the more recent methods of hybridization based analyses (DNA microarray) using immobilized cDNAs (Schena et al., 1995) or oligonucleotides (Lockhart et al., 1996) can potentially examine the expression patterns of a relatively large number of genes, the method can only examine expressed sequences that have already been identified. In contrast, the SAGE method allows for a quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts in any particular cells or tissues, without prior knowledge of the genes (Velculescu et al., 1995). METHODOLOGY The SAGE method is based on the isolation of unique sequence tags from individual mRNAs and concatenation of tags serially into long DNA molecules for lump sum sequencing. It can be applied to the studies exploring virtually any kinds of biological phenomena in which the changes in cellular transcription are responsible. SAGE is based mainly on three principles, firstly, a short sequence tags, 10 to 15 base pairs contains sufficient information to uniquely identify a transcript provided that the tag is obtained from a unique position within each transcript to allow the efficient sequencing analysis. SecondlyShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pages 616 623 Contents Preface xxii 1 1 Introduction What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Importance of Interpersonal Skills 4 What Managers Do 5 Management Functions 6 †¢ Management Roles 6 †¢ Management Skills 8 †¢ Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 8 †¢ A Review of the Manager’s Job 9 Enter Organizational Behavior 10 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 11 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 13 Psychology 14 †¢ Social Psychology 14 †¢ SociologyRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 PagesLeadership Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 1.4.1 Managing the portfolio 1.4.3 Strategy and projects 2.3 Stakeholders and review boards 12.1 RFP’s and vendor selection (.3.4.5) 11.2.2.6 SWAT analysis 6.5.2.7 Schedule compression 9.4.2.5 Leadership skills G.1 Project leadership 10.1 Stakeholder management Chapter 11 Teams Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and Culture 2.4.1 Organization cultures [G.7] 2.4.2 Organization structure

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Robotic Body Via Remote Neuron Detectors - 1438 Words

Humanity has always sought immortality, but now, immortality is more feasible than ever before. Due to recent scientific advances, rat brain cells have been extracted and then grown independently of a body. These cells have been used to control a robotic body via remote neuron detectors. The researcher leading the study, Kevin Warwick, is confident that as technology progresses, the size of these human-created biological brains will increase dramatically, soon reaching the level of approximately 60 percent of a human brain (Warwick 230). This indicates the possibility of eventual human brain transplant to a robotic body. IBM has recently announced that, using their Dawn system of Blue Gene supercomputers, IBM researchers have simulated a†¦show more content†¦These two views seem difficult to reconcile, but there has been a great deal of productive dialogue, and attempts at narrowing the issue. Other groups of engineering philosophers, represented by Neely, have argued that i f a machine has self-interests and is not defined by external human inputs, it must be considered a rational agent, and afforded rights as befits such a station. Cybernetics researchers argue that Warwick’s study, IBM’s AI(Artificial Intelligence) project, and similar efforts force the resolution of this debate, and suggest that robots must inevitably be treated as humans as their intelligence increases (Warwick 223-234). Because these disparate views are a direct result of shareholder’s direct values, negotiating an acceptable solution requires understanding each stakeholder’s underlying values. A solution that encompasses only one’s personal opinions is no better than imposing one’s will upon others. Even if this solution is enforced by legislation, if the solution does not have shareholder backing it will be undermined by shareholders, and avoided by loopholes. The proposed solution is to consider biological brains composed of human neuro ns, regardless of how these neurons were cultured, and AI that is a direct simulation of a synaptic brain, as intelligent life. Because these biological brains and AI are

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Introduction to Antibiotics free essay sample

Antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the world today. A. They can cure anything from your minor discomforts to a life-threatening disease. B. However, if misused, antibiotics can cause many problems. II. Antibiotics are so overused, that the human body is becoming resistant to its cures. III. This morning I will show you that misusing antibiotics can be done without a person even realizing that they are doing it. A. First, antibiotics are used to feed animals to help with faster growth. B. Second, doctors are prescribing antibiotics when they don’t cure the disease the patient has. C. Third, when a patient is prescribed an antibiotic, they may not continue taking the prescribed amount after the symptoms are gone. (Transition: You may not know it, but you might be consuming antibiotics when you eat a hamburger. ) Body 1. Throughout the years, antibiotics have been used in an agricultural setting to feed the animals and promote growth. We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction to Antibiotics or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A. An article dated January 28, 2008 entitled â€Å"Fight to Curtail Antibiotics in Animal Feed† by Sabin Russell in the San Francisco Chronicle, explains benefits and consequences of using antibiotics to feed these animals. . 70 percent of U. S. antibiotics are used in small doses in animal feed; not to treat disease but to promote the growth of the animals. 2. Antibiotics increase the speed of food-to-muscle conversion by 5 percent. 3. Antibiotics that are fed to cattle have been tied to the drug-resistances of salmonella which is found in humans. B. In his 2008 article â€Å"Antibiotic Resistance† in the Genetics Encyclopedia, Paul K. Small cited that the use of antibiotics in animal feeding is associated with antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria. Transition: However, there are other ways that humans can become resistant to antibiotics other than simply consuming the meat of animals who had previously consumed an antibiotic. ) II. Misuses of antibiotics have also been linked to poor prescriptions that doctors give to their patients. A. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration stated in their article â€Å"Facts About Antibiotic Resistance† that antibiotics are given to patients more often than healthcare organizations recommend. 1. Doctors use antibiotics as treatment for the common cold or the flu, both of which are viruses that do not respond to antibiotics. . Some physicians are diagnosing a patient with little information about their symptoms, and will prescribe an antibiotic as a just-in-case. B. Doctors Thomas Hooten and Stuart Levy of the CME wrote in an article entitled â€Å"Confronting the Antibiotic Resistance Crisis: Overprescribing Antibiotics† blame the overprescribing on the doctors themselves. 1. Doctors may pr escribe broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of specific antibiotics to treat the symptoms that the patient has. a. Broad- Spectrum antibiotics are used prior to finding the cause of bacteria in a life-threatening situation, such as meningitis. Doctors use these when there are multiple bacteria causing illnesses that need to be treated. b. Specific antibiotics are used against a select bacterial type, or when the bacteria causing an illness are known. 2. Physicians prescribe antibiotics to simply please the patient. a. Patients request the medication, making doctors feel the need to fill the prescription to keep the patents satisfied with the office. b. Patients pressure doctors into prescribing certain mediations so they can get back to work or school sooner. (Transition: Have you ever been prescribed a medication for a sickness, and stopped taking it when your symptoms stopped? III. After the symptoms have stopped, a lot of people stop taking the antibiotics that they were prescribed. A. In an article written September 24, 2008 â€Å"The New Superbugs† printed in the Times of India, Bennett Colemen addresses the problems after an antibiotic is prescribed. 1. Patients use leftover medication if the symptoms come back in the future. 2. Drugs are distributed illegally- people who have used the drug for certain symptoms will give it to others who are currently having the symptoms. B. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration also address this problem. 1. Patients who are prescribed antibiotics but don’t take the full prescription can cause a resistance to that antibiotic. 2. When people do not complete the scheduled course, the medication can act as a â€Å"vaccination† for the surviving bacteria. (Transition: As you can see, it is sometimes impossible to be aware that you are not using an antibiotic in the correct way. ) Conclusion I. Although people may think that the antibiotic is the â€Å"cure all† medication, using them when it is not needed will cause you many problems. II. The misuse of antibiotics can be happening in many ways, three of which I have just addressed. A. Antibiotics that are being used in feeding agricultural animals to promote growth. B. Doctors over prescribing or wrongly prescribing an antibiotic. C. Patients who refuse to finish their full prescription, and continue taking a prescription when the symptoms reoccur. III. Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medicines in modern medicine. A. Antibiotics are vital in curing life-threatening diseases. B. Antibiotics should be used the way that they are meant to be used, so that they can benefit the users as much as possible.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

The For A Family History Project Essay Example For Students

The For A Family History Project Essay â€Å"Huh. Never knew that.† Sitting at his computer a twelve year old version of myself looked intently at a computer screen. â€Å"This does explain the coat of arms Dad has hanging in the toilet though.† While researching for a family history project the young Tom ahd stumbled onto some surprising information. His last name, Drummond, is a historically Scottish name. â€Å"Always told I was English but whatever†.Originating in the highlands of Scotland the Drummond family has an extensive noble lineage. The current head of the family or clan holds the title of Earl of Perth and there is even a Scottish Queen somewhere back in the history. They were and still are a family with multiple castles, one even called Drummond Castle. â€Å"I should really verify this information with a non-Wikipedia â„ ¢ site. We will write a custom essay on The For A Family History Project specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now † In accordance with the his thoughts the boy went back to his initial Google â„ ¢ search and went clicked on some more reputable scholarly journals. â€Å"That clears that up then,† the new sites corroborating his previous research. A very interesting and exciting genealogy to work into†¦. â€Å"seems like a lot of trouble truthfully†. With this in mind he thought back to some of the more recent histories of the Drummond family he had been told. â€Å" I first met your father in a pub†¦ and he was drunk as a skunk. † â€Å"Thanks for sparing my innocent sensibilities there Mum† Continuing on unawares of her son’s traitorous thoughts my Mum thought back to a day many years ago. â€Å" I was working as a bartender in a pub called the Lost Dene. No idea even what that could mean, whenever I asked Thomas, the owner, â€Å"WAIT! was I named after a bar owner!?† â€Å"Noooo† the uncomfortable look on her face told a different story. â€Å" Anyway, moving on.he always dodged the question. The pub it. .y angry fiance. â€Å"You too really have no filter when it comes to your children do you?† As I said I don’t remember much but I apparently came to The Lost Dene already drunk, fell over the doorstop, face planted but got back up, and started asking your mother to marry me with various volumes and words. Your mother says I then went out back to throw up and never came back. She went out to check on me and found me passed out by the dustbins. Searching my pockets to preemptively steal my wallet and keys she found the ring I had gotten the last week. That is apparently the only reason she didn’t kill me, the ring implied I had thought about this while sober. She did leave me in the alley as punishment though.† â€Å" I really did not need to know any of that thank you† â€Å" Well now you do, any other questions?† â€Å".was I named after a bar owner?† â€Å"Nooooo†¦.† â€Å"Goddamn it.†

Monday, March 9, 2020

Ottoman Empire Society and Structure

Ottoman Empire Society and Structure The Ottoman Empire was organized into a very complicated social structure  because it was a large, multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire. Ottoman society was divided between Muslims and non-Muslims, with Muslims theoretically having a higher standing than Christians or Jews. During the early years of Ottoman rule, a Sunni Turkish minority ruled over a Christian majority, as well as a sizable Jewish minority. Key Christian ethnic groups included the Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians, as well as Coptic Egyptians. As people of the Book, other monotheists were treated with respect. Under the millet system, the people of each faith were ruled and judged under their own laws: for Muslims, canon law for Christians, and halakha for Jewish citizens. Although non-Muslims sometimes paid higher taxes, and Christians were subject to the  blood tax, a tax paid in male children, there was not a lot of day-to-day differentiation between people of different faiths. In theory, non-Muslims were barred from holding high office, but enforcement of that regulation was lax during much of the Ottoman period. During the later years, non-Muslims became the minority due to secession and out-migration, but they were still treated quite equitably. By the time the Ottoman Empire collapsed after World War I, its population was 81% Muslim. Government Versus Non-Government Workers Another important social distinction was that between people who worked for the government versus people who did not. Again, theoretically, only Muslims could be part of the sultans government, although they could be converts from Christianity or Judaism. It did not matter if a person was born free or was a slave; either could rise to a position of power. People associated with the Ottoman court or divan were considered higher status than those who were not. They included members of the sultans household, army and navy officers and enlisted men, central and regional bureaucrats, scribes, teachers, judges, and lawyers, as well as members of the other professions. This entire bureaucratic machinery made up only about 10% of the population, and was overwhelmingly Turkish, although some minority groups were represented in the bureaucracy and the military through the devshirme system. Members of the governing class ranged from the sultan and his grand vizier, through regional governors and officers of the Janissary corps, down to nisanci or court calligrapher.  The government became known collectively as the Sublime Porte, after the gate to the administrative building complex. The remaining 90% of the population were the tax-payers who supported the elaborate Ottoman bureaucracy. They included skilled and unskilled laborers, such as farmers, tailors, merchants, carpet-makers, mechanics, etc. The vast majority of the sultans Christian and Jewish subjects fell into this category. According to Muslim tradition, the government should welcome the conversion of any subject who was willing to become Muslim. However, since Muslims paid lower taxes than members of other religions, ironically it was in the Ottoman divans interests to have the largest possible number of non-Muslim subjects. A mass conversion would have spelled economic disaster for the Ottoman Empire. In Summary Essentially, then, the Ottoman Empire had a small but elaborate government bureaucracy, made up almost entirely of Muslims, most of them of Turkish origin. This divan was supported by a large cohort of mixed religion and ethnicity, mostly farmers, who paid taxes to the central government. Source Sugar, Peter. Ottoman Social and State Structure. Southeastern Europe Under Ottoman Rule, 1354 - 1804. University of Washington Press, 1977.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Chemical Engineering Dissertaion. Designing a venturi scrubber Essay

Chemical Engineering Dissertaion. Designing a venturi scrubber - Essay Example This happens in the bottleneck of the venturi. Behind this bottleneck, the pressure drops, reducing flow velocity back to normal. At this point, contaminant particles are collected and removed. A venture scrubber is the simplest but most compact but efficient wet dust collector. It collection efficiency is rated from 0.2 Â µ particles when high linear gas velocities ranging 50 to 150m/s reach the throat as the gas is contacted with water. Therefore, collection efficiency of a venture scrubber depends on the pressure drop experienced during the operation. The scrubber is made of a long tube with consecutive converging and diverging sections with steep rising velocity in the convergent section. This enables the scrubbing liquor to get in contact with the throat and convert the kinetic energy into pressure in the downstream divergent diffuser. When gas flow is a variable, it is necessary to adapt the cross-section of the throat to maintain constant velocity as well as collection efficiency. In a simple tubular design, the throat is made of rubber and pinched pneumatically. Other types consider mechanical control to adapt the cross-sectional area. Amount of water injected is also varied. As water moves in the closed circuit, a settling basin is incorporated that separates the collected dust as slurry. The high velocity of the gas makes it important to consider erosion and abrasion factors as well as corrosion due to the absorption of acid gas compounds. Water treatment of the collected water pose considerable costs to venture dust collectors. The water droplets coalesce to a size of 0.1mm and are separated by centrifugal forces (conventional cyclones), lamellae separator, sick-sack flow, inertial forces and wetted collecting surfaces, or wire or fibre gauge packages. The droplets from venturi scrubbers require entrainment. Therefore droplet separators are required. A two step arrangement is preferred with a first contact using recycled water while the